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Specific Gravity

Why the test is performed

This test helps evaluate your body’s water balance and urine concentration.

Normal results

  • Normal values are between 1.020 to 1.028

Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

What abnormal results mean

  • Increased urine specific gravity may be due to:
    • Addison’s disease (rare)
    • Dehydration
    • Diarrhea that causes dehydration
    • Glucosuria
    • Heart failure (related to decreased blood flow to the kidneys)
    • Renal arterial stenosis
    • Shock
    • Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)
  • Decreased urine specific gravity may be due to:
    • Aldosteronism (very rare)
    • Excessive fluid intake
    • Diabetes insipidus - central
    • Diabetes insipidus - nephrogenic
    • Renal failure
    • Renal tubular necrosis
    • Severe kidney infection (pyelonephritis)
  • Additional conditions under which the test may be performed:
    • Complicated UTI (pyelonephritis)
    • High blood sodium level
    • Low blood sodium level
    • Excessive urination

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Source: National Institutes of Health